Wednesday, December 25, 2013

Roman Catholic Priests Offer the First Christmas Services in the Boise Basin

On December 25, 1863, the only public Christmas services held in the Boise Basin were those offered by the Roman Catholics. Recall that, back in September, Catholic Fathers Toussaint Mesplie and A. Z. Poulin had been busy building churches in four different Basin towns. On Christmas, Father Mesplie celebrated Mass at the little church in Placerville, hurried to Pioneerville for another, and then continued to Centerville to hold a third.

Meanwhile, Father Poulin performed a series of Christmas services at the larger church, St. Joseph’s, in Idaho City. The Illustrated History of the State of Idaho later said, “As the Catholic churches were at that time the only ones in the Boise basin we need not be surprised to read in the newspaper accounts of that first Christmas in Idaho, that they were filled to overflowing.”

With buildings erected almost entirely from pine boards, these early mining towns were extremely susceptible to fire. Less than two years after that first Christmas, a major fire burned most of the structures in town. Strenuous efforts by the locals barely saved St. Joseph’s Roman Catholic church.
St. Joseph's Altar. Library of Congress

But the church was not spared two years later, when another blaze swept through town, urged on by strong winds. Most of the church fixtures also went up in smoke, but they were able to save some.

Still, within a couple months, the Idaho World (formerly the Boise News) reported, “Prominent among the frame edifices in Idaho City is the new Catholic chapel, upon the site of the church destroyed by the May fire, on East Hill. It is not quite completed, but it already presents the finest appearance of any building in the city, and is a credit to the place, to its architects and builders altogether.”

Some months later, celebrants could again enjoy Christmas services at a new St. Joseph’s, with at least a few vestments and altar pieces to provide a link to that first church. St. Joseph’s is still in use today.

References: [French], [Illust-State]

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Idaho Territorial Legislature Meets for the First Time

On Monday, December 7, 1863, the legislature for Idaho Territory began its first session, meeting in Lewiston. As noted earlier, the Republicans (Union Party) held a majority in both the Council and the House of Representatives.

Members chose Joseph Miller, representing the Second District, as President of the Council, after nine ballots. Histories of the time provide little information about Mr. Miller, other than that he was from Boise County.

The House chose James Tufts as their Speaker, although he had been elected from the sparsely-settled eastern side of the Territory. However, as a practical matter, Tufts might well have had the most relevant experience for the job.

Born in New Hampshire in 1829, James went to college in Vermont, then became a lawyer in Iowa. Between 1859 and 1862, he was a Probate Judge, and also served terms in the legislatures of Nebraska Territory and then Dakota Territory. Tufts also had experience as a U. S. Commissioner in Dakota Territory.

Later, when Congress split Montana off from Idaho, Tufts was appointed the Secretary of that Territory. For a time, he was Acting Governor there. He moved back to Nebraska around 1870 and lived there until his death in 1884.

This first legislature had a lot to do, and there were only eighteen men to handle the work: seven in the Council, eleven in the House. Among their first actions was to recruit some help. The Council created an administrative staff that included a Secretary and Assistant Secretary, a Sergeant-at-Arms, and a Doorkeeper. The House’s staff included a Chief Clerk and Assistant Clerk, a Sergeant-at-Arms, and a Doorkeeper.
First Legislative Hall. J. H. Hawley photo.

The Organic Act stipulated that the first session of the legislature could continue for 60 days. (After that, “no session in any one year shall exceed the term of forty days.”) The Act placed constitutional restrictions on what laws could be enacted, but contained relatively few specific stipulations. One provision did say, “whereas slavery is prohibited in said territory by an act of Congress of June nineteenth, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize or permit its existence therein.”

The legislative agenda would eventually include enactment of a criminal code, practices for civil proceedings (lawsuits), probate actions (processing wills and estates), and other basic legal structure. Already, they faced a backlog of requests to incorporate several towns, and numerous applications for franchises for toll operations (roads, bridges, and ferries). Also, since much of Idaho’s vast expanse was unorganized, the legislature would spend considerable time creating a host of new counties.
They would be busy.

References: [Hawley], [Illust-State]
Michael P. Malone, Richard B. Roeder, and William L. Lang, Montana: A History of Two Centuries, Revised Edition, University of Washington Press, Seattle (1991).

Friday, November 29, 2013

Newspapers Report More Results from the Election in Idaho Territory

On November 29, 1863, the Lewiston Golden Age published an “Extra” with the results of the Territorial elections. (The item was reprinted in The Oregonian a few days later.) The headline was “Union Ticket Triumphant.”

At that time, they already had most of the totals from west of the Divide. This report contained “election returns from the precincts east of the Bitter Root mountains.”

The article first gave the result for Delegate to Congress: “Cannady’s majority east of the Bitter Root mountains is 251, which reduces Wallace’s majority to 339, as near as we can come at it until the returns are opened and counted.”

The Age added a postscript to the extra: “Since the above was put into type a letter has been received by the express from Fort Laramie, stating that Wallace’s majority at that place is 474, swelling his majority throughout the Territory to 813. Bully for Laramie!”

In reality, the census had enumerated only 218 people in the Laramie District, and less than half of them were eligible to vote. This ballot-box stuffing was apparently perpetrated by Territorial Marshal Dolphus Payne, but fortunately it did not affect the election for Delegate. Still, as could be expected, Democrats would repeatedly use the notorious “Laramie Fraud” to beat up Republican candidates in future campaigns.

Concerning the other elections, the Age said, “The following persons are elected to the Legislature from the eastern portion of the Territory: “East Bannock, W. C. Rheam [sic, Rheem], (Union), Councilman … ”

When combined with the other Districts, the results gave the Republican (Union) Party a majority in both the Council and the House of Representatives. However, Democrats would win the next election decisively, and held the legislator for many years afterwards.

With that turnaround, plus the splitting away of Montana Territory six months later, only three of the men chosen in that first election played any later role in Idaho government. Council member Stanford Capp served a second term on the Council, in 1872. Lyman Stanford, also on that first Council, was later sheriff of Owyhee County.
Judge Kelly. [Illust-State]

Milton Kelly, Representative from Boise County, played a much more prominent role after his term. Born near Syracuse, New York in 1818, Kelly became a lawyer in Wisconsin and then moved to California in 1861. He next followed the gold camps into Oregon and Idaho, settling in Placerville, Boise County, in 1863 … just in time for the election.

In 1865, President Lincoln, shortly before he was assassinated, appointed Kelly to the Supreme Court of Idaho Territory as an Associate Justice. He spent six years on the Court, assigned to the District based in Lewiston. He then moved to Boise City, where he purchased the Idaho Statesman newspaper. After seventeen years, in 1889, failing health led him to sell the paper. He passed away three years later.

References: [Hawley], [Illust-State]
A Historical, Descriptive and Commercial Directory of Owyhee County, Idaho, Owyhee Avalanche Press, Silver City, Idaho (January 1898).
“Idaho Election Returns,” The Oregonian, Portland (December 4, 1863).
“Laramie Fraud,” Reference Series No. 154, Idaho State Historical Society (February 1966).

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Newspaper Tries to Educate Its Readers About Idaho Gold Country

On November 23, 1863, the San Francisco Evening Bulletin reprinted an article from the Boise News in Bannock City (today’s Idaho City). The item began, “Many persons in Oregon, California and elsewhere are at fault as to the particular locality of these mines, as evinced by numerous blunders in letter writing, etc., that have come under our notice.”

The writer proposed to definitively explain where the Boise Basin towns were located, and how one might get to them. He wrote, “Bannock city is situated on a point formed by the junction of Moore’s and Elk creeks. Moore’s creek heads in a spur of the Rocky mountains, and flows nearly in a southeasterly direction, and empties into Boise river from the north side.”

He cataloged several Basin towns known at that time and then said, “Boise city is situated on Boise river, near the mouth of Moore’s or Grimes’s creek (we are not informed as to which name the stream assumes below the junction).”

The creeks join “some 12 or 13 miles below this city.” His distance estimate was high by only a mile or so, and that may reflect changes in the course of the road. Below the junction today, the stream is called Mores Creek. The writer said, “Those curious to know of our whereabouts may easily do so by [first] finding old Fort Boise on the map.”

Portion of Oregon Territory. Map issued by J. H. Colton & Co., New York, ca 1856.
The Hudson’s Bay Company had abandoned its Fort Boise after about 1855, but it still appeared as an important landmark in Oregon Trail guidebooks of the time. Remnants of the fort – which had been damaged by a flood – were located near where the Boise River emptied into the Snake.

With the map in hand, the curious person could “then trace Boise river up 65 miles.” That would have led to a spot about ten miles up-river from the new Fort Boise, and Boise City – neither of which would appear on any map published in 1863, or before. From there, the writer said, “Strike off in a northeasterly direction 30 miles. With that, he figured, the seeker “may very nearly put their fingers on Bannock city.”

The writer’s words provided a remarkably accurate set of directions for finding the town.

References: [B&W]
“Location Of The Boise Mines,” Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, California (November 23, 1863).

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Richness of Owyhee Mines Not Over-blown, Location Given

On November 17, 1863, The Oregonian published news of the so-called Owyhee mines, especially quartz mines that might produce both gold and silver. The item began, “During the past two months, considerable importance has attached to the district of what is generally termed the Owyhee river mines. Reports, many of them exaggerated if not entirely without foundation in reality have been freely circulated and as freely repeated.”

In The Oregonian’s view, such wild stories served only to drive up the prices of mining stocks. The article went on, “Hitherto, we have sought to avoid giving currency to the stories – as far as compatible with the duties of responsible journalism – preferring to await the receipt of authentic information upon a matter of such interest to the venturesome miners who risk so much.”

However: “We yesterday conversed with a gentleman of the utmost reliability – whose judgement is seldom warped by the sanguine hopes that afflict a majority of our fortune hunters.”

This level-headed individual first described the location of the primary Owyhee mining region: It is “twenty-five miles from the river of that same [name], being located on the hills above Jordan Creek, thirty miles from Snake river, sixty-five from Boise City, … and about 150 miles from Humboldt, in a north-westerly direction, and in the same range with Washoe, Humboldt, and South Boise.”

These and his other distance estimates were acceptable. However, the notion that the Owyhee mines were “in the same range” with other rich quartz-mining regions was rather odd, and erroneous. Unfortunately, snowy weather had limited his exploration, but he saw enough and “returned, satisfied with his trip, to prepare for the coming of spring.”

Overall, he had found rich lodes, “some of which have yielded assays of $3,000 silver ore, besides a fair proportion of gold. … There were over 200 miners at Boonville [sic] when our informant left.”
Colonel Dewey. [Illust-State]

One of those miners was probably “Colonel” William H. Dewey. Born in Massachusetts, Dewey followed the rush to California and then to Idaho “in the fall” of 1863, when he was about forty years old. Known as “a born miner,” Dewey came to own numerous mining claims, then later added real estate and railroad development. He eventually became one of Idaho’s first millionaires.

The Oregonian also learned that “There are no placer diggings on the hills, the bed-rock in many places being near the surface of the hill. For about eight miles along Jordan Creek, however, the gold is fairly evenly distributed, and miners are taking out from one to four ounces per day to the man, with sluices."

Returns of $15 to $60 a day for each member of a sluice team were considered very good. The item concluded, “We have been promised more reliable details … which we shall give our readers as soon as received.”

References: [Hawley]
“Gold and Silver Quartz Mines Near The Owyhees,” The Oregonian, Portland (November 17, 1863).
A Historical, Descriptive and Commercial Directory of Owyhee County, Idaho, Owyhee Avalanche Press, Silver City, Idaho (January 1898).
Merle W. Wells, Gold Camps & Silver Cities: Nineteenth Century Mining in Central and Southern Idaho, 2nd Edition, Bulletin 22, Idaho Department of Lands, Bureau of Mines and Geology, Moscow, Idaho (1983).

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

Magruder Killers Fight Extradition from California

On November 6, 1863 the Evening Bulletin published an article entitled “The Murderers from Idaho,” which discussed, at length, the murder of Lloyd Magruder in Idaho Territory. Recall that, after October 18, Hill Beachy  had begun to suspect murder had been done and shortly thereafter pursued the killers to San Francisco.

The article began, “The four fugitives from Idaho, supposed to be the murderers of Lloyd Magruder … have failed thus far in their attempt to escape justice under that sometimes abused protection to society, a writ of habeas corpus.”

Their lawyer argued a host of technicalities, one being that “the Governor of a Territory had no right … to make a requisition on the Governor of a State.” He also pointed to various procedural issues in the preparation of the requisition itself, issues that – in his view – invalidated the document.

The judge, however, cited a variety of precedents and seemed inclined to deny the writ. The defense attorney hoped to delay a decision against his clients and “asked the Judge to suspend an opinion and regard this merely as an intimation of his views.”

Although the prosecuting attorney preferred an immediate ruling, the judge did agree to another hearing the next morning. The newspaper writer felt the judge would send the fugitives back to Idaho, although the defense would probably be able to force more delays.

The writer then devoted several paragraphs to what was known of the murders and the pursuit. Among other facts, he noted that the alleged killers were “well known individuals” in Lewiston, and Beachy knew they had boarded the stage while “answering to assumed names.”

Beachy had found various indications that something had happened to his friend Magruder. The Bulletin writer said, “All these circumstances taken together, it was deemed proper to pursue the men who had passed through Lewiston so mysteriously.”
Hill Beachy.
Nez Perce County Historical Society.

During the subsequent chase, the pursuers found that the fugitives had changed their “traveling names” twice. They used new aliases to board a Columbia River steamer west of Walla Walla, and different ones to register at hotels in Portland. From there, the writer said, “They gave out that their intention was to go to Victoria, but took passage, instead, on the steamer which left Portland on Sunday morning, direct for San Francisco.”

Trial records later gave the names of the fugitives as David Renton, James Romain, Christopher Lower, and William ”Billy” Page. Even then, it was never clear that those were their real names.

At the time, it was thought that just three men had been murdered. The Bulletin article concluded, “In the whole record of crime, three murders more cold blooded, instigated only by a lust for the hard-earned gold of others, can scarcely be found.”

References: “The Murderers from Idaho,” Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, California (November 6, 1863).
Julia Conway Welch, The Magruder Murders, Falcon Press Publishing, Helena, Montana (1991).

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Silver Excitement and Town Growth in the Owyhee Country

On October 23, 1863, the “Regular Correspondent” in Auburn wrote another letter to The Oregonian about the Idaho mines. In contrast to the severe cutbacks in the Boise Basin, he said, “The latest excitement is the silver leads at the Owyhee. Assays from Portland show these ledges will rival the Comstock ledge itself, and experiments made here have started speculation forth a month ago.”

Gold, of course, had fueled a major rush into the Owyhee mountains in June and early July. No one paid much attention to the possibility of silver lodes until July, when experienced prospectors located several ledges. However, little happened with these finds for a couple months after that.

But now, that was about to change. The correspondent went on, “The Owyhee will make a name for itself before long as a silver region, and these ledges will astonish the world as much as any thing that has ever been discovered. … One return showed $3,400 per ton in silver, and that was only medium quality; another more than doubled it.”

About this time, various gold camps along Jordan Creek began to coalesce into towns, including Booneville and Ruby City. Both would be fairly short-lived, although Ruby City would last long enough be a county seat through 1866. But Silver City, located higher on the creek, would soon surpass the other towns in the area.
Silver City in Its Heyday. H. T. French*

The letter from Auburn continued, “The Owyhee country has attracted many of our citizens thither the past week or so, and will considerably deplete our population should the excitement continue.”

References: A Historical, Descriptive and Commercial Directory of Owyhee County, Idaho, Owyhee Avalanche Press, Silver City, Idaho (January 1898).

“Letter from Auburn,” The Oregonian, Portland (November 5, 1863).

*Hiram Taylor French, History of Idaho: A Narrative Account …, Lewis Publishing Co., Chicago and New York (1914).

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Mining Company Speculation and the Gold Hill Mine

On October 15, 1863, the San Francisco Evening Bulletin published its regular “The Mining Roll Continues” item. The notice said, “The following companies filed their certificates of incorporation yesterday:  Great Consolidated Boise River Gold and Silver Mining Company, Placer District, Idaho Territory.  Capital stock $1,373,300, in 13,733 shares of $100. Trustees -- E. Rankin, W. H. Mills, W. L. Boothby, W. D. Robertson and F. A. J. Diss. ... [Other companies.]”

So far as can be determined, none of the company Trustees ever had anything to do with Idaho Territory. It appears that they simply invested (speculated) in mining stocks. Mr. Mills, for example, was listed on the incorporation and/or prospectus documents for at least a half dozen mining companies during this period.

The Great Consolidated Boise River Gold and Silver Mining Company did come to own a number of mining claims in the Boise Basin. Unfortunately, the corporate history is lost, so it is unclear if the incorporating officials still controlled the firm. The company eventually purchased one of the best claims, if not the best quartz claim, in the Basin -- the Gold Hill Mine.

Originally called the Pioneer Mine, the claim was the first lode discovery along Granite Creek, two to three miles northwest of Placerville. The Illustrated History of the State of Idaho stated that, “Even the poorest rock in the Pioneer assayed over sixty-two dollars to the ton, while the better class went from six to twenty thousand dollars!”
Miner Working Lode Face. Library of Congress.

Those potential returns encouraged the owners to bring in one of the first large ore mills – a ten-stamp array – into the Basin. The Pioneer and several smaller lodes were eventually combined into what would be called the Gold Hill. A new mining town, Quartzburg, also grew up essentially in the middle of the ridges that covered the gold lodes. The Gold Hill operated profitably for over seventy years.

References: [Illust-State]
“The Mining Roll Continues,” Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, California (October 15, 1863).

Friday, September 20, 2013

Idaho: Year One, An Idaho Sesquicentennial History

The most recent addition to the Sourdough Publishing inventory is my new book Idaho: Year One – The Territory's First Year. It is, as usual, available at a dedicated CreateSpace eStore as well as at and at Barnes & Noble.

On March 4, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed legislation that created the Territory of Idaho, a geographical monstrosity roughly the size of Texas and Illinois combined. Newspapers across the East acknowledged the event with a short paragraph, buried among equally-brief items about other Congressional actions.

A week later, the New York Herald had assembled enough material to publish a map (of sorts) and a longer descriptive article about the new political district. More a celebration of Western expansion, the item contained almost as much mis-information as information. Still, one fact stood out: Idaho had Gold! and perhaps a lot of it.

But the Civil War raged and the Territorial birth had to share headlines: Victory in Tennessee? “Piratical Operations” of Rebel privateers at sea. Vicksburg. And More. At first, no one in the West knew even the exact borders. Was Lewiston in or out? A governor and other officials were quickly appointed, but took months to arrive. Who were these men, and what policies would they impose?

But, more importantly: Where, exactly, could one find gold? How do we get there? What do we take with us? Guidebooks say to be alert and have our guns ready: Are the Indians really that dangerous? Why won’t the Army do something about them?

Using contemporary published articles and letters from the gold camps, Idaho: Year One, captures the day-by-day excitement and uncertainty as hopeful prospectors poured into the area. Was the latest reported gold strike real, or was it a “humbug” meant to lure in suckers? You could never be sure.

Table of Contents
  1. March 1863: We’re a Territory. Now what?
  2. April 1863: Waiting for the Season
  3. May 1863: Mining Booms, and Spreads
  4. June 1863: “Gold … Plentiful as Dirt"
  5. July 1863: Summer Lull Setting In
  6. August 1863: Optimism Despite a Mining Lull
  7. September 1863: Harbingers of Settlement
  8. October 1863: Winter is Coming
  9. November 1863: Weather Slows Mining
10. December 1863: Baby Steps For Law and Order
11. January 1864: Politics at Center Stage
12. February 1864: Busy Politicians and Hopeful Miners
Afterword: Territory Partitioned
Image Sources

Periodically, I will post samples here of the daily "news" that make up the book. These posts will be labeled with the Territorial Sesquicentennial logo created by the Idaho State Historical Society.

Several earlier examples were published as "sesquicentennial" posts on the South  Fork Companion, such as: "Miners Lack Water But Prospectors Still Hopeful, Politicians Meet." In most cases, the comparable item in the book includes more background material, and sometimes additional news.

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Idaho Mining History: Boise River Gold Country

Boise River Gold Country is available for purchase online at its dedicated CreateSpace eStore. You can also order the book from Amazon and other online booksellers, such as Barnes & Noble. (If you prefer not to order online, local "bricks and mortar" bookstores will order it for you, but those stores will generally not stock ready-to-buy copies.)

The book tells the story, in words and pictures, of the settlement of the mountainous regions drained by the Forks of the Boise River. It all began in 1862, so 2012 is the 150th anniversary of the first towns in the area. That looming milestone prompted Idaho City merchant Skip Myers to ask me to write a new history of the region. (The few existing books on the topic were all out of print.) Boise River Gold Country is the result.

On every page, from the Introduction (“Setting the Scene”) through all the chapters, the book contains at least one image – generally historic photographs. Overall, I used over two hundred photos to supplement and illustrate the textual material.
Boise Basin Gold. Found ca 2009

Prospectors first discovered Idaho gold in late 1860, on the tributaries of the Clearwater River in North Idaho. Hordes of miners poured into the region. However, two years later, a party led by Moses Splawn and George Grimes found gold in the Boise Basin, a mountainous area northeast of today’s Boise. These fields proved far more extensive than the earlier finds.

Thus, it was Boise River gold that “gave legs” to the creation of Idaho Territory. The first Territorial census, in September 1863, counted nearly five times as many people in the Basin as in the northern camps and towns. A year later, that imbalance had increased to nearly seven to one. Large-scale gold mining continued in Boise River gold country for almost a century. Also, at the dawn of the Twentieth Century, logging began to increase in importance. Large-scale timber harvesting surpassed mining in value after about 1955, peaking around 1980.

Table of Contents
Setting the Scene
Chapter One: Before the Golden Age
Chapter Two: Gold Rush Creates Idaho
Chapter Three: Cooperative Mining Replaces the Sourdough
Chapter Four: Placer Mining Fades, Lode Mining Grows
Chapter Five: Dredging and Hardrock Mining
Chapter Six: Big Timber Takes an Interest
Chapter Seven: Mining Revisited
Chapter Eight: Recreation and Tourism
Chapter Nine: World War, and Afterwards
Chapter Ten: Identity TBD
Image Sources

Before the Spud: Indians, Buckaroos, and Sheepherders in Pioneer Idaho

Say "Idaho" to most people, even Idahoans, and they think "potato." Fair enough, considering decades of relentless marketing. What many do not think of are "cowboys" and "cattle." Yet Idaho was, and is, as much a cowboy state as its more-recognized cattle-state neighbors in the Intermountain West.

My book – Before the Spud: Indians, Buckaroos, and Sheepherders in Pioneer Idaho – seeks to correct that mis-perception. Published under the "Sourdough Publishing" imprint, the book is available from a dedicated web site and also online from and Barnes & Noble. Any B&N store can order you a copy, although they will not generally carry independently published books on their shelves. (Sigh.)

Before the Spud tells the story of how the Idaho stock raising industry developed. It begins with the "first stockmen of Idaho" – Shoshone and Nez Percés horse raisers – and carries forward to about 1910, followed by a brief survey of the state of affairs today.

Among the pioneer stories is that of French émigré Alexander Toponce. In the 1870's, he ran "as high as 10,000 head of cattle" on leased land at Fort Hall Indian Reservation. Toponce played many roles: freighter, stage line operator, mining investor, sheep raiser, and mayor of Corinne, Utah.
In 1888, George L. Shoup, in one routine transaction, sold a thousand cattle from his Salmon River ranches. Two years later, he became Idaho's first state governor and then one of its first two senators.
In 1897, a jury convicted hired cowboy-gunman "Diamondfield Jack" Davis of murdering two sheepmen south of Twin Falls. Although two other "respectable" cattlemen soon confessed to the killings, Davis twice came within hours of hanging and was not pardoned until 1902.

Table of Contents
Preface: Ground Rules
Chapter One: The First Stockmen of Idaho
Chapter Two: Fur Trade Era – Canadians Dominant
Chapter Three: Competition Heats Up
Chapter Four: Wagons Across Idaho
Chapter Five: Mining Makes a Territory
Chapter Six: Idaho Meat for Hungry Miners
Chapter Seven: Stock Raising Grows
Chapter Eight: Filling in the Gaps
Chapter Nine: The Last Stands
Chapter Ten: Cattle Drives Across and From Idaho
Chapter Eleven: Rails Across Idaho
Chapter Twelve: Livestock Boom
Chapter Thirteen: Nature Delivers a Lesson
Chapter Fourteen: Range Conflict Heats Up
Chapter Fifteen: A New Century